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Sustainable –Development with Equity

10th Class New Syllabus Study Material Key Points:
  1. As a measure of development, Human Development Index (HDI) is an improvement over the two long-standing measurement of growth viz.- Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and per capita income. The GDP is an indicator of the value of goods and services produced in the country and per capita income is the annual average income a person in of a country.
  2. HDI expands the scope of development by including the important social indicators such as education and health.
  3. Deforestation, soil erosion, lowering ground water tables, increasing pollution, pressure on grazing land, rising dependence on fossil fuels, industrial emissions, use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture and climate change are some of the important environment issues before us.
  4. The ‘Sink function’ describes an environment’s ability to absorb and render harmless waste and pollution. When the waste output exceeds the limit of the sink function, long term damage to environment occurs.
  5. Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. In other words, sustainable development means a better quality of life for everyone, for present and future generations.
  6. The consequences of our resource use may induce serious damages that go beyond the absorbing capacity of the environment.
  7. The Narmada valley development project is the single largest river development scheme in India. Sardar sarovar project has devastated human lives and biodiversity by inundating thousands of acres of forests and agricultural land.
  8. We have several thousands of communities living off the environment. To destroy the environment means to destroy these communities. It is unjust to ask the poor people to bear to cost of development.
  9. Climate change affects all countries and people, some may be more than the other. Many of these effects we do not even understand and cannot anticipate.
  10. Now many states have realized the need and potential of organic farming. The Sikkim government has taken the bold step to ban chemical fertilizers and pesticides. It is the first state in India that is planning to shift completely to organic farming by 2015.
Key words:
  1. Sustainable Development: Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
  2. Environment: Natural world which people animals and plants live. Many naturally existing substances like land, water, minerals and ores, products from the trees and animals are central to the production process.
  3. Source: Origin Primary sector activities – agriculture mining, quarrying- and in the manufacturing and energy sector, production is hugely depend on natural resources.
  4. People’s Rights: Rights of the people, they are legal, social or ethical principles of freedom.
  5. Equity: The Quality of being fair or important fairness.
  6. Sink: Go down below the surface of a liquid. In the present context, it is environment’s ability to absorb.
1. “Last but not the least, the key to environmental problem lies in changing life styles that will minimise waste and pollution?
  1. What are the various ways in which our lifestyles affect the environment? Use example from your own context to explain.
  2. Find out about the various ways in which the problems of garbage and emissions are being deal with around the world.
  1. There are several greenhouse gases responsible for global warming and humans emit them in a variety of ways, most come from the combustion of fossil fuels in cars, factories and electricity production.
  2. The gas responsible for the most warming is Carbon dioxide also called CO2. Other contributors include methane released from landfills and agriculture especially from the digestive systems of grazing animals, nitrous oxide from fertilizers, gases used for refrigeration and industrial processes and the loss of forests that would otherwise store CO2.
  3. Changing lifestyles will minimise waste and pollution.|
    a) Don’t let your car leak oil on the street.
    b) Reduce fast-foods intake
    c) Try to choose foods that are seasonal to your area rather than imported long distances d) Bring your own bags with you to the stores
    e) Recycle paper, glass, plastic single use batteries
    f) Use natural composts and fertilizers
    g) Usually have a trip by bicycle or on foot to short distances.
    h) Try to go green - afforestation leads to reduce global warming
    i) Try to make use of solar energy
2. Rapid extraction of minerals and other natural resources would adversely impact the future development prospects. Do you agree?
  1. Rapid extraction of minerals and other natural resources would adversely impact the future development of a country.
  2. In primary sector activities like mining and quarrying, production is hugely dependent on natural resources. But the extent of our current resource use is such that future generations will hardly have access to their fair share of scare resources. Moreover, the consequences of our resource use may induce serious damages that go beyond the absorbing capacity of the environment.
  3. Over Consumption of minerals will lead to output limitations in near future. Maximum rate of minerals extraction is reached and resulting in declining production.
  4. More demand for the petroleum will lead to rise in its prices. If this extraction goes on at the current pace, the petroleum deposits will be depleted within a few decades.
  5. Half of the forests that once covered the earth is destroyed for various economic activities, which is a major contributor to global warming.
3. Should the average temperature of the earth be treated as the natural resources for all the people?
  1. The average temperature of the earth is 13o, but there are variations in temperature in different regions. The earth’s temperature has to be treated as a natural resource of all the people as it is one of the prerequisites for human life on earth.
  2. The temperature makes the earth a suitable place to live. Conservation of natural ecosystems can solve the issues related to the climate change.
  3. Deforestation leads to global warming. By reducing atmospheric green house gases, we can control global warming.
  4. A rise of 20 C in average temperature would result in rise of one meter in sea levels by early next century. This would affect large portions of our coastal areas.

1. Identify at least ten food items that you consume and find out how far they have travelled from their place of production to reach your plate.


Food item

Distance travelled





Edible oil





Many people have argued for localisation of food production rather than food travelling long distances. How is localisation of food connected to the environment? Find out more about the localisation movement in food and organise a discussion and debate in the class room.


Food Item

Distance Travelled



20 km



200 km











Cooking oil






Dry fruits



Milk & curries





Location of food is connected to lands suitable to grown.

2. Why did the people of Jalsindhi village refuse to move out of the village?
  1. The people of Jalsindhi village were living in the nature. Their lifestyle was totally connected to the environment. They are very satisfied with their living on the bank of River Narmada.
  2. They have been living there for generations. They use their own seeds and manure from their own live stock.
  3. The people feel that they are the children of the mother Narmada.
  4. They refused to live in Gujarat. Their attachment love with Jalsindhi village makes them refuse to move out of the village.
3. “This is the land of our forefathers. We have a right to it. If this is lost, then we will only get spades and pickaxes, nothingelse,” says Bala Mahaliya. Can you explain the statement?
  1. The people of Jalsindhi village are very satisfied with living on the bank of the Narmada river with their lands and forests. They have been living here for generations. They have a right over River Narmada and to the forests.
  2. It is land of their forefathers. If it is lost, then they will be left with nothing. They don’t want resettlement and they don’t want any compensation.
  3. They use their own seeds and manure from their own livestock. The forest is their moneylender and banker. They sing the gayana, the song of the river.
  4. Their village gods are all here. Their ancestors’ memorial stones are all there. Their attachment and love trends Jalsindhi village make them to refuse to leave their village to live in Gujarat.
4. Why do you think the effects of climate change may be felt by all countries?
  1. Many global issues are climate related, including the basic needs of life. Changes in climate can threaten these needs with increased temperatures, sea level rise and changes in precipitation, among others.
  2. Climate change threatens key natural resources.
  3. Deforestation, industrialisation, emission of poisonous gases by rich and poor nations. Deforestation leads to global warming.
  4. The melting of ice-covers in Polar Regions indicates global warming.
  5. A rise of 20 C in the average temperature may appear to be small, but it would result in a rise of one meter in sea levels by early next century. This would affect large portions of our coastal areas and millions of people would have to be slipped. They would lose their livelihood.
  6. Climate change is something that happens at a global level. Therefore it affects all of us.
5. What are the lessons to be drown from the alternate PDS initiative at Zaheerabad mandal in Telangana State?
  1. The Zaheerabad farmers revived the local food culture. They gave importance to crop for which the land and local environment is suitable.
  2. The nutritional value of the cereal was realised by them. The village was made food secure with their local grain millets.
  3. They have realised that it is better to deposit the grains in grain bank instead of exporting and mixed cropping reduces the insects.
6. “Environment is crucial for the lives and livelihood of the local communities and the lifestyles of local communities are harmonious with the environment”. Explain?
  1. Environment is vitally important for the lives and livelihood.
  2. For rural communities, the link between the environment and lives of people is very strong. Interaction of rural community with the environment provides for their needs.
  3. The environment is denuded of its rich biodiversity and rich traditional knowledge.
  4. Climate soil composition and irrigation facilities will determine the settlements of the people.
  5. The lifestyle of local communities also should be in harmony with the environment.
  6. Local customs, cultural practices and traditions and religious festivals all are based on the changes in the climate patterns of that area.
Published date : 19 Dec 2014 01:15PM

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