Skip to main content

Ideas of Development

Tenth ClassKey Words:


  1. Per Caption Income: The total national income divided by the number of people in the Nation. Per Capita income is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a Country. The per Capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is especially useful when Comparing one Country to another becomes it shows the relation performance of the Countries. A rise in per capita GDP signals growth in the economy and tends to translate as an increase in productivity. The average income is also called per Capita Income.
  2. Human Development: Pre-fixing ‘Human’ to ‘Development’, it has made it clear that what is happening to the citizens of a Country is important in development. People, their health and their well-being. Life expectancy at birth, education and Per Capita income are most important. Health and Education indicators have come to be widely along with income as a measure of development. UNDP compares countries based on the educational leered of the people their health status and Per Capita income.
  3. Public Facilities: The facilities like roads, electricity, health and educational instaurations, rations shops provided by government.
  4. Education and Health Indicators: Human development Index has tried to expand the notion of development to include the social indicators of health and education. Government provision is the only way of improving health and education states for all. Education is the key component of human development. The state of being free from illness is health.

Key Points:



  1. Different persons can have different development goals and what may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may even be destructive for the other.
  2. People desire are regular work, better ways, and decent price for their crops or other products. That they produce. People also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security and respect from others.
  3. The development goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other important things in life.
  4. A safe and secure environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.
  5. We compare Countries based on the average income, which is total income of the country divided by total population. The average income is also called per capita income.
  6. World Bank classified countries with per capita income of US 12,600 and above per annum in 2012 are called high income countries and those with per capita income of US 1,035 or less per annum in 2012 are called how income countries.
  7. The development countries are rich countries excluding countries of West Asia and certain other small countries.
  8. Now India falls under the category of middle income countries. But, Sri Lanka is much a head of India in every indicator of development.
  9. Out of 1000 live Children born, the number of Children who die with one year is called ‘Infant Mortality Rate’.
  10. The percentage of literate population above 7 years age is called ‘Literacy Rate’.
  11. Out of total number of children in age group 6-17, the percentage of children attending school is called ‘Net Attendance Rate’.
  12. In Bihar half the children of school going age do not attend school. In Himachal Pradesh out of 1000 children born alive, 36 died before completing one year of age in the year 2006.
  13. ‘Life expectancy’ at birth denotes the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.
  14. Money cannot buy a pollution free environment or ensure that you get Unadulterated medicines. Unless you can afford to shift to a community that already has all the these things.
  15. Income and per capita income. Though very often, is only one aspect of development. Distribution of income can be very unequal even when over all incomes rise.


Long Questions & Answers

1.Usually behind each social phenomenon there would be several contributing factors, and not one. What in your opinion are the factors that came together for the development of schooling in Himachal Pradesh?

1. Money cannot buy all the goods and services that many need to live well. Income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of maternal goods and services that citizens are able to use. Many people believe that government should open schools and provide other facilities so that all children have a chance to study.
2. Factors for ‘the echoing revolution in Himachal Pradesh’ are
a) Both the government of Himachal Pradesh and the people of the state were keen on education.
b) The government of Himachal Pradesh stated schools and made sure that education was largely free of Cost.
c) It tried to ensure that these schools had at least the minimum facilities of Teachers, Class rooms, Toilets , drinking water etc,. As the years went by, these facilities were improved and expanded.
d) More schools were opened and teachers were appointed so that many more children could study easily.
e) Himachal Pradesh has the distinction of one of the highest spending from the government budget on education of each child.
f) The norm in Himachal Pradesh has come to be at least 10 years of schooling for children.
g) A welcome trend in Himachal Pradesh is the lower gender bias. Himachal parents have ambitious educational goals for their girls, Just as for their boys.
h) Himachal mothers expect their daughters to work out side home after marriage. Schooling therefore comes naturally and has become a social norm.
i) In year 2005. Himachal Pradesh was spending Rs.2.005 per child on their education.

2.Do you think there are certain other aspects, other than those discussed in the chapter that should be considered in measuring human development?
  1. People are the real wealth of a nation. The basic objective of development is to create on enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives.

    Other Aspects of Human Development:
  2. Production of war equipment like nuclear weapons. The production of which trends to lower social welfare, should be reduced. More secure livelihoods. Protection from natural calamities.
  3. Proper work and leisure ratio to be maintained. There must be constitutional Protections to the work force. Better working conditions.
  4. Equitable distribution of income within the society. Distributional justice with equity.
  5. Better nutritional and health services and Food security.
  6. Greater access to Knowledge.
  7. Security against crime and physical violence.
  8. The availability of public utility services like
    a) Electricity
    b) Transportation facilities
    c) Clean safe drinking water
    d) Good housing and sanitation etc.
  9. Freedom and human rights. Participating in activities.
  10. Standard of living, are other aspects of Human development.

3. Why do you think parents accord less priority to girls education as compared to boys? Discuss ?


  1. In many parts of the country girl’s education is still given less priority by parents compared to boy’s education. While girls may study for a few classes, they may not complete their schooling.
  2. The main reason this is gender bias. Parents believe that boy is their heir and spreads their clan. Parents do not have attritions educational goals for their girls when compared to their boys.
  3. In rural areas girls are engaged in taking care of their smaller siblings. They are married off at early ages, which prevents their education.
  4. The negative attitude of parents towards the girl child and her education. In most of the families boys at home are given priority in terms of education.
  5. Parents do not consider girls as earning members of their family, as after marriage they have to leave their parents home. So, their education is just considered as a wastage of money.
  6. Poverty is the root cause of many problems in India. Rural indebtedness is also cause for less priority to girls education by the parents.
  7. In most of the rural areas lack of adequate school facilities is another reason for this less priority to girls education. Parents do not prefer to send girls to schools if they are located at a far distance from their village or home.
  8. Himachal women are themselves employed independent and self. Confident. They expect their daughters to work out side home after marriage. Schooling therefore comes naturally and has becomes a social norm. There the gender baseless.
  9. Education to both girls and boys are essential. Hence, the parents must think like Himachal women. There should not be any gender bias as education is the key component of human development.


4. Right to education Act, 2009 (RTE) declares that all children of 6 to 14 years age have the right to free education. And the government has to ensure building of sufficient schools in the neighborhood, appoint properly qualified teachers and make all necessary provisions. In the light of what you have read in this chapter and already know, discuss and delete the importance of this Act for (i) Children, and (ii) Human Development.

I The Importance of the RTE for Children:
  1. Government of India brought Right to Education Act in 2009. The act makes education a fundamental right of every child between the ages of 6-14 years.
  2. The government will provide schooling free – of- cost.
  3. It mandates all private schools to reserve 25% of seats to children.
  4. It prohibits all unrecognized schools from practice and makes for no capitation fees and no in fees view of the children or parent for admission, etc.
  5. A child who completes elementary education shall be awards a certificate.
  6. Improvement in the Quality of education is important. Teachers will need proper professional degree.
  7. Infrastructure in the school need to be improved. The financial burden will be shared by both state and the central governments.
  8. The act is the prime legislation that fixs the responsibility of ensuring enrollment, attendance and completion on the government.
II For Human Development.
1. Education is the key component of human development. It serves as a building block to get a quality elementary education.
2. The state with the help of all commentates should fulfill this obligation. It is essential for the development of the society as a whole.

Short Answer Questions:

1. What main criterion is used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of the above criterion, if any?

1. The main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries is the Per Capita Income. The total income divided by the total population in the country we get the average income. The average income is also called per capita income.
Limitations of the criterion:
2. It does not tell us how this average income is distributed among the people in the country.
3. Countries with the same per capita income might be very different with regard to income distribution.
4. Many countries with the same per capita income have different stranded of livings.
These are other aspects should be consider in measuring human development.

2. In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
1. UNDP (United Nations Development Program me) used the criterion of Human Development Index for measuring development of different countries.
2. UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.
3. World Bank compares countries based on the per capita income.
4. UNDP measures the development of the people on the following aspects. They are
a. Life Expectancy at birth
b. Average years of schooling
c. Health states
d. Per capita income etc.
5. Thus UNDP’s criterion gives us a clear- cut information.

3. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations for their used illustrate with your own examples related to development?
1. The Total income of the country is the income of all the residents of the country. For Comparison among countries, total income is not such a useful measure. Since, countries have different population, comparing total income will not tell us what an average people is likely to earn. Hence, we compare the average income which is the total income of the country divided by its total population.
2. There are certain limitations for using per caption income for comparing countries. They are
a. It enables to show how income is distributed among the people of the country.
b. Some important aspects of Human development like Infant Mortality rate, literacy rate, net attendance of schooling etc. are not considered while calculating per capita income.
c. The Socio- Economic disparities will not be taken into considered while computing per capita income.

4. What lessons can you draw about the importance of income from the fact that Himachal Pradesh with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab?
1. Punjab has highest per capita income than Himachal Pradesh. So, if per capita income were to be used as the measure of development, Punjab world be considered the most development.
2. In Himachal Pradesh out of 1000 children born alive, 36 died before completing one year of age. In Punjab the proportion of children dying within one year of birth is 42. The literacy rate of Himachal Pradesh is 84 and the net attendance rate is 90. Therefore, in spite of low per capita income Himachal Pradesh has better human development. It has better health and educational facilities than Punjab.

5. Based on the figures in Table 6, fill the following:
Out of every 100 girls above 6 years of age, _____ girls had studied beyond the primary level Himachal Pradesh in year 1993. By year 2006, this proportion reached ___________ out of 100. For India as a whole, the proportion of boys. Who had studied beyond primary level was only _________ Out of 100 in year 2006.
A. Out of every 100 girls above 6 years of age, 39 girls had studied beyond the primary level in Himachal Pradesh in year 1993. By year 2006, this proportion reached 60 out of 100. For India as a whole, the Proportion of boys who had studied beyond primary level was only 57 out of 100 in year 2006.

6. What is the per capita income of Himachal Pradesh? Do you think higher income can make it easier for parents to send children to school? Discuss. Why was necessity for government to run schools in Himachal Pradesh?
1. Himachal Pradesh per capita income is 74,000. Yes, I think higher incomes can make it easier to send children to school.
2. At the time of Indian independence. Himachal Pradesh had very low levels of education. Being a hilly region spread of schools in the rural areas was a big challenge. Hence, if is necessary for government to run schools in Himachal Pradesh.

7. What is the relationship between women’s work outside their homes and gender bias?
1. Working women are economically independent and self – confident. They have greater say in household decisions. They can make decisions in children’s education, health etc,.
2. They expect their daughters to work outside home after marriage. There is inverse relationship between working women and gender bias. There is lower gender bias with women’s work outside their homed.
Published date : 10 Nov 2023 11:14AM

Photo Stories