All about Montreux Convention!
- The Montreux Convention Regarding the Straits Regime, or simply the Montreux Convention, is an international treaty that governs Turkey’s Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits.
- It was signed on July 20, 1936, in the Montreux Palace in Switzerland, and took effect on November 9, 1936.
- This convention was signed to address the long-running Straits Question of who should manage the strategically important route between the Black and Mediterranean Seas.
- The maritime traffic through the Black Sea is regulated by the Montreux Convention.
- During peacetime, it grants full freedom of passage for all civilian vessels and allows Turkey to limit the movement of navies who do not belong to the Black Sea states.
- During wars, this pact gives Turkey the right to regulate the naval warship transits and blocking of the strait for warships of the countries in conflict.
- Military warships are restricted in terms of tonnage, number, and weaponry, with specific rules that govern their duration of stay and mode of entry.
- Advanced notifications have to be provided by warships to the Turkish authorities, who then must notify the parties to the Convention.
- Despite being created for a specific geopolitical context, the Montreux Convention is still in force and is a strong example of a rules-based international order since most of its terms are still respected.
- Controversies did happen regarding its implementation, most notably during the proposed Kanal Istanbul. Another waterway would be provided by Kanal Istanbul to the Sea of Marmara from the Black Sea, and this could lead to circumventing the Convention.
Published date : 03 Mar 2022 06:02PM