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All About Article 370: Here is What You Need to Know!

Article 370, a provision within the Constitution of India, bestows special autonomy upon Jammu and Kashmir, a privilege unparalleled in any other state in the country. The genesis of this distinctive status traces back to the tumultuous period of India's independence.
Article 370

History of Article 370:

Following the partition of British India in 1947, India and Pakistan emerged as independent nations on August 15, 1947. In the midst of these seismic events, the state of Jammu and Kashmir found itself at the epicenter of geopolitical tensions. On October 27, 1948, the last ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, Raja Harisingh, acceded to India, seeking assistance against Pakistan's attempts to seize Srinagar. This accession was subject to certain conditions and agreements. Subsequently, Sheikh Abdullah was appointed as the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir in 1949.

When was Article 370 introduced?

The pivotal moment came on October 17, 1949, when the Constituent Assembly incorporated Article 370 into the Constitution, conferring special privileges upon Kashmir. Despite Abdullah's plea for permanent independence, Kashmir was granted temporary special status. The monarchy was abolished in 1952 through the Delhi Agreement, followed by the enactment of Article 35A in 1954 and the approval of a separate constitution for Jammu and Kashmir in 1956. Article 370 thus became the cornerstone of Kashmir's unique status, although it also allowed for potential amendments through Article 368 of the Constitution.

Gopalaswami Iyengar, a key figure from the erstwhile Madras State, played a pivotal role in crafting Article 370. Serving as the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir and later as a Union Minister in the Nehru government, he was instrumental in raising the Kashmir issue at the United Nations.

Article 370 delineates the special autonomy granted to Jammu and Kashmir within the Indian Union. It stipulates that the central government's jurisdiction is limited to defense, foreign affairs, finance, and communications, with the state government retaining authority in other areas.

Over the years, Kashmir has been marred by conflicts and disputes, hindering economic development and political stability. The abrogation of Article 370 has been advocated as a necessary step to address these challenges and integrate Kashmir more closely with the rest of India.

Abrogation of Article 370

Article 370 provides provisions for its revocation, with the President of India empowered to repeal the special status granted to Kashmir at any time. Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Union Home Minister Amit Shah navigated this process skillfully, leading to the historic abrogation of Article 370 on August 5, 2019. This decision, ratified by President Ram Nath Kovind, marked a significant shift in the governance of Jammu and Kashmir, ushering in a new era of centralized administration akin to other parts of India.

Published date : 07 Mar 2024 04:54PM

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