# 18. Inferences from Passage

INTRODUCTION:
Inference is nothing but deriving conclusion. Inferences from passage mean deriving the conclusion by understanding the given passage and conclude according to that. Inference i.e., conclusion is of four types of choices.

Thus, there are two positive choices instead of one: ‘Probably true’ and ‘definitely true’ and two negative choices instead of one “probably false” and “definitely false”. This requires slightly deeper thinking.

The best technique of evaluating a given inference is to subject it to a three- Pronged, graded test.
This test consists of three steps:
(i) Directly follows from the passage
(ii) Can be inferred from passage
(iii) Can be inferred with the help of some key words.
In the first category lie the easy questions where an inference is more or less a restatement of something already stated in the passage. In the second category, we check if the inference can be derived from the facts mentioned in the passage. And finally in the third category, we see if some key words justify the given inference.

EXERCISE:
Directions: In each question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.
Mark answer (a) If the inference is 'definitely true' i.e., it directly follows from the facts given in the passage;
Mark answer (b): If the inference is 'probably true' though not definitely true in the light of the facts given;
Mark answer (c): If you think the data are inadequate i.e., from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false;
Mark answer (d): If you think the inference is “probably false’ though not definitely false in the light of facts given; and
Mark answer (e): If you think the inference is 'definitely false' i.e., it contradicts the given facts.

Question 1 to 5
India needs higher investment in the port sector and still lags far behind international ports in container traffic, though there has been considerable growth in this segment over the past few years.
There is a need to continually benchmark Indian ports against the best ports worldwide and continue to engage in policy efforts so as to attain prices per container of port services which are the lowest in the world. The average turn-around time for ships docking at most of the ports in India has been falling for the past three years. However, pre-berthing time has been marginally increasing over the years.
1. The best port in the world is located in the United States of America.
2. Indian ports have not been graded so far on the international standard.
3. India ports need considerable development to match with the best ports in the world.
4. Pre-berthing time is gradually decreasing over the years.
5. Indian ports offer the lowest price per container as service charges.

Questions 6 to 11
Cotton Acreage in India during the current year has fallen by 10% as cotton growers had moved on cultivation of other cash crops. This is the result of cotton glut in the world markets in post-September 11 and the consequent slowdown in the world economy. But this scenario brought with it benefits to one segment of the industry - yarn manufacturers, as they get higher prices for their produce. Some yarn manufacturers too had stocked up on low priced cotton last year. The combined effect of all this evident in the rise net profits and net margins of yarn manufacturers.
6. Land used for growing cotton in India is conducive to grow other cash crops.
7. The farmers will again grow cotton next year due to increased price of cotton yarn.
8. There has been shortage of cotton in the world market last year.
9. There has been a huge drop in the supply of cotton during the current year
10. World economy witnessed an upward trend during pre-September 11 period.
11. The yarn manufacturers have marginally suffered during post-September 11 period.

Questions 12 to 16
Pollution amounts to slow murder. Regular exposure to industrial and vehicular pollution leads to life threatening diseases like asthma, heart problems, cancer and various other disorders. Therefore, nobody has the right to pollute, rich or poor. Industrial and vehicular pollution are growing rapidly across the country. It is not just metropolitan centres that are heavily polluted today but also small and medium towns. Pollution is growing faster than the economy. This is because the western technological model, built on heavy use of energy and materials, is an inherently highly toxic model. It produces huge amounts of toxic pollutants, which can be controlled if there is careful choice of technology and there is considerable discipline in its use.
12. The industries which use higher level of energy create more pollution.
13. The spread of pollution has gathered momentum in the recent past.
14. The smaller industrial units contribute proportionately higher pollution.
15. The pollution level in the western world is considerably more than in India.
16. Proper planning in use of modern technology leads to less pollution in the environment.

Questions 17 to 24
In India, the asbestos industry is growing and employs more than 15,000 people in 75 units which are spread over several states like Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh etc. Surprisingly, advanced countries are banning cancer causing asbestos products, multinational companies are from those countries which are setting up units in developing countries like India, one reason being lack of awareness in the society and indifference of the government machinery of these countries. Prolonged exposure to asbestos dust and fibers can cause lung cancer but most workers in India are too afraid to protest for fear of losing jobs. Some of these factories are operating in Mumbai.
Quite a few of the factories in India are not known to take adequate precautions to protect workers from asbestos dust. The Government is taking several steps to provide medical inspection of workers. In fact it has amended Factories Act to extend the provision to even those factories employing less than 10 workers.
17. The asbestos industries in India are located in few metropolitan pockets only.
18. The regular medical inspection and treatment of asbestos workers has improved the health status in advanced countries.
19. The advanced countries are concerned and careful to protect health hazards of its people.
20. The asbestos industry is one of the largest industries in India.
21. The asbestos industry offers better salaries in India as compared to other hazardous industries.
22. The workers from asbestos industries do not protest against the health hazards and lack of medical facilities as most of them do not suffer from asbestos dust.
23. The Governments of developing countries appear to be not taking appropriate measures while granting permission to set up production units of multinational companies in their countries.
24. The demand of asbestos products appears to be growing in India.

Questions 25 to 29
Economic liberalization and globalization have put pressures on India industry, particularly on the service sector, to offer quality products and services at low costs and with high speed. Organizations have to compete with unequal partners from abroad. It is well recognized that developing countries like India are already behind other countries technologically, in many areas, although some of them, particularly India, boast of huge scientific and technical manpower. In addition to this, if an entrepreneur or industrialist has to spend a lot of his time, money and energy in dealing with unpredictable services and in negotiating with the local bureaucracy, it can have a significant dampening effect on business.
25. Indian service industry was more comfortable before economic liberalization.
26. India at present is to some extent at par with the developed countries in terms of technological development.
27. Foreign companies are more equipped than domestic companies to provide quality service in good time.
28. Official formalities are less cumbersome in almost all the countries except India.
29. No other developing country except India claims that they have highly trained technical manpower.

Questions 30 to 34
Self-medication has evolved rapidly over the years to provide symptomatic relief for minor ailments. One can safely define responsible self-medication, as the informed and rational choice of consumers, to treat themselves and their family members with appropriate, affordable drugs of acceptable quality. Responsible self-medication can help prevent and treat symptoms and ailments that do not require medical consultation. Moreover, it also reduces the increasing pressure on medical services for the relief of minor ailments, especially when financial and human resources are limited. Worldwide, more and more governments are accepting the self medication concept. Self-medication is a fact of life. With its broad use and social acceptance, no health policy should ignore self-medication. Rather, health policy should ask how its momentum can be leveraged to help achieve its objective.
30. Self-medication can even cure severe and complicated ailments.
31. The use of self-medication has not been accepted widely by the Governments and society.
32. Self-medication reduces considerably pressure on health care system of any country.
33. Only knowledge consumers should be encouraged to practice self-medication.
34. Comparatively more people adopt self-medication in the western countries.

Questions 35 to 39
Laws governing the cooperative societies are uniform in all states. These laws give the member of a housing society the right to nomination during his life time. This is quite unlike the rule in other property related cases where nomination comes into force after the demise of the member. The question then arises that, can the nominee get full proprietarily rights over a flat merely because he has been nominated by a deceased member of the society. Many people are under the wrong impression that once a nomination form has been filled, their responsibility is over and that the nominee would have no problem acquiring the property. And, that the legal heirs of the member will pose no problem for the nominee.
35. The law that considers whether a person is a legal heir or not has some lacunae.
36. Nomination to property right need not be made to legal heirs only.
37. There is a need to educate the people on all aspects of laws governing the cooperative societies.
38. Cooperative movement had started with cooperative housing societies.
39. Property related laws are more or less same in all the states.

Directions: In each question below is given a passage followed by some inference. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.
Mark answer (a) If you think the inference is 'definitely true';
Mark answer (b) If you think the inference is 'probably true' though not definitely true in the light of the facts given;
Mark answer (c) If the data given is inadequate i.e., from the fact given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false;
Mark answer (d) if you think the inference is 'probably false' though not definitely false in the light of facts given; and
Mark answer (e) if the inference is 'definitely false' i.e., it contradicts the given facts.

Questions 40 to 44
It is generally accepted that if the monsoon is poor in any given year, it will have a significantly negative impact on the lives of millions. Some lives, such as those of the farmers, are affected directly because of poor crop yield; others are affected indirectly as the economic growth slows down. Similarly, the years with good monsoon bring smile and prosperity to the lives of many. For instance, India recorded a sharp jump in its rate of growth after years of good performance in the recent years. This unfortunate cycle affects the lives of millions of poor and hapless. But it need not be this way. In the jargon of financial economics, monsoon risk is a diversifiable risk. In other words, it is an insurance risk. Though one might wonder who will provide the insurance against poor monsoons if everyone is adversely affected by poor monsoon. The answer is - the international investor.
40. Majority of the people outside are not affected by the poor monsoon in India.
41. Monsoons in India have been good only in the alternate years during the past few years.
42. There has been considerable growth in India’s economy during the recent years.
43. Scanty monsoon adversely affects the lives of only the poor people in India.
44. All over the world diversifiable risks are always covered by the insurance companies.

Questions 45 to 49

Logically these are rules of conduct. Every country has laid down comprehensive series of practical rules for citizens for resolving mutual contradictory rights and interests. Most of these rules have been laid down to sustain social activities. For instance, many countries have laid down rules to protest against such unsocial activities as theft, attack and murder. These rules are backed by judicial system and executor institutions, which look after the people who obey the rules and also who violate the rules. Wherever the human behavior is involved such rules are not only for namesake there but are necessary also.
45. There are no rules in countries where citizens' interests and rights do not contradict.
46. There is no need to have any machinery to ensure strict adherence to the rules by citizens.
47. Without rules, human behavior degenerates into anarchy.
48. There is no need of any rules if individuals do not have to interest with each other.
49. Human beings are susceptible to violate rules.

Directions (50-54): Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage? You have to examine each inference separately in the context o f the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.
Mark answer (a) If inference is ‘definitely true’, i.e. it properly follows from the statement o f facts given.
Mark answer (b) If the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’ in the light of the facts given.
Mark answer (c) If the ‘data are inadequate’, i.e. from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.
Mark answer (d) If the inference is ‘probably false', though not 'definitely false’ in the light of the facts given.
Mark answer (e): If the inference is ‘definitely false’, i.e. it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.

In the commodities business size does matter. This is common wisdom. The Indian sugar industry, the second largest in the world after Brazil, has traditionally been fragmented, which led to widespread sickness and large number o f mills going bankrupt, a situation exacerbated by a slew of government controls-which are, meaningfully, getting diluted since August 1998. It’s now been more than seven and half years since the industry was delicensed. No official permission is required either to build a new factory or for brown field expansion plan, except that there must not be any violation of command area norms. Even then, there aren’t many who have the capacity to play the volumes game at the cyclic sugar business.
50. India has not yet been able to consolidate its firm stand in the international sugar market.
51. At present the Indian sugar industry has been made considerably free from Government controls.
52. Prior to 1998, Indian sugar industry was considerably lower in the world ranking o f large nations.
53. Most of the bankrupt sugar mills in India are funded b y the Government to revive their units.
54. The Indian sugar industry has comparatively smaller units in comparison to other major sugar producing nations.

Directions (55-59): Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage? You have to examine each inference separately in the context o f the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.
Mark answer (a) if the inference is ‘definitely true’, i.e., it properly follows from the statement of facts given.
Mark answer (b) if the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’ in the light o f the facts given.
Mark answer (c) if the ‘data are inadequate’, i.e, from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false .
Mark answer (d) if the inference is ‘probably false’, though not ‘definitely false’ in the light o f the facts given.
Mark answer (e) if the inference is ‘definitely false’, i.e., it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.

Even as the economy is back on track and consumer confidence up, the number o f credit cards in the system continues to dip. In the last one year, the total number o f credit card in use has dipped by almost 50 lakhs. According to the latest data released, the number of credit cards dipped to about 2 crores as of end February 2010 from around 2.5 crores a year ago. The data also indicate that average monthly card spends both in terms of value as well as volume has still not touched the precise levels. Average monthly spend in Financial Year 2010 has fallen to Rs.5,100 crores against Rs.5,400 crores in Financial Year 2009, while average monthly volumes in the current year has been just 1.94 crores a month compared to 2.16 crores a month in Financial Year 2009. Even peak festival spending through cards in the current fiscal is less than the previous year’s levels.
55. Credit card usage in the current year has substantially decreased from Financial Year 2009.
56. There has been a drop o f about 40 percent in use of credit card in the current year from the previous year,
57. There has been a drop of about 10 percent in the number of credit card transactions in the current y ea r from the previous year.
58. The drop in usage o f credit cards in India is lesser than that in many other countries.
59. People are not using credit cards in the current year due to rampant credit card related fraud

 ANSWER KEY 1 c 11 e 21 c 31 a 41 e 51 a 2 b 12 a 22 e 32 a 42 a 52 c 3 a 13 a 23 a 33 e 43 e 53 c 4 e 14 d 24 b 34 c 44 e 54 a 5 e 15 c 25 b 35 b 45 e 55 a 6 a 16 a 26 a 36 a 46 e 56 e 7 b 17 e 27 a 37 a 47 a 57 a 8 e 18 c 28 c 38 c 48 e 58 c 9 b 19 a 29 e 39 c 49 a 59 e 10 c 20 d 30 e 40 b 50 a
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