Skip to main content

Communicable diseases

Communicable diseases are those that affect people by coming in contact with the infected person or the surfaces/objects contaminated by the virus or bacteria. The virus/bacteria could pass through air or consumption of contaminated food or contact with body fluids. The following list includes major ones among the various communicable diseases.
Ebola
  • The full name of Ebola is Ebola Virus Disease ( EVD)
  • It is categorized under the deadly Viral RNA category.
  • Virus is spread by direct contact with an infected person or the recently contaminated body fluids.
  • Symptoms include sore throat, muscle pain, diarrhoea, measles-like rash, reduced liver and kidney function, vomiting etc
  • There is no cure or vaccine available for Ebola yet. Intensive care at the preliminary stage is only chance of surviving the disease.

Flu
  • Influenza or Flu is respiratory infection that generally affects the areas of nose, throat and lungs.
  • Major symptoms are headache, weakness, muscle pains, runny nose and sore throat.
  • It is caused by Influenza virus; there are three types of Influenza virus categorized as A, B and C.
  • This virus mainly spreads through air while infected people sneeze or cough.
  • There are mild or deadly levels of influenza, vaccines are available to fight such situations.

HIV – AIDS
  • Acquired Immuno deficiency Syndrome aka AIDS is one of the deadliest among communicable diseases.
  • It is caused by Human Immuno deficiency Virus which causes the gradual degradation of the immune system.
  • It is mostly transmitted through sexual contact, contaminated blood transfusion or from mother to child through breast feeding.
  • Symptoms may include various kinds of infections all at once as the patient’s body becomes weak.
  • It leads to inevitable death of the patient with him/her becoming vulnerable to other disease conditions like TB.
  • It is treated with HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), a combination of anti- HIV components will not cure the disease, but help the patient cope with the disease.

Pertussis
  • Pertussis or whooping cough is a contagious disease spread by Bordetella Pertussis.
  • The bacteria affects respiratory system causing severe coughs
  • The condition is usually treated with antibiotics to reduce the severity of the cough.
  • Children are particularly sensitive to this disease
  • Vaccinations are available to help prevent Pertussis

Rabies
  • Rabies is a serious condition that affects the central nervous system
  • It is caused by Rabies Virus
  • The symptoms of Rabies includes anxiety, confusion, excessive saliva production , hallucinations, high level of excitement, insomnia, problems swallowing due to painful throat and voice box ,spasms, restlessness
  • It usually spread through the bite or scratches from an infected animal or human which helps virus comes into contact with the blood stream or muccus system
  • Death may occur within 3 to 10 days after the beginning fo symptoms.
  • Prevention is through vaccines and the process of post-exposure prophylaxis.

Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Tuberculosis is a disease that most often comes with malnutrition.
  • It is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
  • The bacteria may attack lungs, kidney, spine or brain and all of them are equally fatal.
  • Chronic coughs and blood in phlegm are the major symptoms associated with TB
  • It spreads from through personal contact with infected person and the treatment of TB takes a long period of time.

Global Health Topics Hepatitis
Education News
  • Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver, most commonly caused by a viral infection.
  • There are five main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E.
  • The symptoms include nausea, abdominal pain, fatigue, malaise, and jaundice.

Polio
  • Polio is the short form of Poliomyelitis a disease which attacks the nervous system.
  • There are three kinds of viruses broadly known as polioviruses which causes the disease
  • Polio generally affects children under five causing dysfunction of limbs or muscles and similar conditions
  • In aggravated conditions it can reach the stage of paralysis
  • There is no cure for the disease so importance is given to prevention.

Malaria
  • Malaria is an infectious disease that transmits through anopheles mosquitoes
  • It is caused by Plasmodium parasite
  • Typical symptoms include fever, fatigue, vomiting and headaches
  • Various treatments are available for Malaria depending on the severity and type of the disease
  • Effective vaccine has not been found for malaria yet. Prevention from mosquito bites is generally advised.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Chlamydia
  • Chlamydia is an infection caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • In women, it causes Pelvic inflammation and pain which may or may not lead to infertility.
  • In men, it may occur as urethral infection or swollen testicles.
  • It can be treated with minimal care and is not a grave situation.

Syphilis
  • Syphilis can be a serious condition if not treated with antibiotics.
  • It is caused by bacteria called Treponema pallidum.
  • Symptoms include ulcers, fever, fatigue etc.
  • Left for long it can lead to conditions like mental illness, blindness and eventually death.
Published date : 31 Jan 2015 06:18PM