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All about Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): Transmission, Symptoms and Prevention

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.
Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales. Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek Edu news "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N).

Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids. Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis. The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:
1. Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
2. Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
3. SARS-CoV
4. Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
5. Human coronavirus HKU1
6. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
7. Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.

Outbreak of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV):
On 31 December 2019, several cases of pneumonia were reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China. The virus did not match any other known virus. This raised concern because when a virus is new. One week later, on 7 January, Chinese authorities confirmed that they had identified a new virus. The new virus is a coronavirus, which is a family of viruses that include the common cold, and viruses such as SARS and MERS. This new virus was temporarily named “2019-nCoV.”
2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a coronavirus identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China.

Transmission:
Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans.
At this time, it’s unclear how easily or sustainably Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV is spreading between people. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China.

Common Symptoms of Coronavirus:
The symptoms of most coronaviruses runny nose, coughing, sore throat, and sometimes a fever. In most cases, you won't know whether you have a coronavirus or a different cold-causing virus, such as rhinovirus.
For confirmed 2019-nCoV infections, reported illnesses have ranged from infected people with little to no symptoms to people being severely ill and dying. Symptoms can include:
  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
Treatment
There is currently no vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. The best way to prevent infection is to avoid being exposed to this virus.

Preventive actions to help prevent the spread of respiratory viruses –
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • Stay home when you are sick.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.
What kills coronavirus?
Most household disinfectants readily kill coronavirus immediately. Room temperature kills coronavirus within 48 hours.
Published date : 27 Jan 2020 03:43PM